While shopping for eco-friendly fabrics, you might have come across the Rayon fabric, also known as viscose. While most fabrics fall into two categories - natural fabrics and synthetic fabrics, rayon fabric is semi-synthetic. It is a common fabric in the world of fast fashion. Many consider it to be more eco-friendly when we compare it to fabrics like polyester and nylon.
We know rayon for its comfort, breathability, and versatility. However, with this fabric comes the question of sustainability. Is rayon worth keeping in our sustainable fashion wardrobe?
In this article, we will explore all you need to know about rayon fabric and its sustainability.
Quick links for Rayon or Viscose Fabric:
Rayon fabric, or viscose, is a semi-synthetic fabric that is an extract from pure cellulose fibers. Manufacturers derive all rayon fabrics from natural materials like wood pulp and cotton. But the manufacturing process requires certain chemicals which differentiate the final product.
Rayon fabric is soft, breathable, and comfortable to wear. Its soft texture is like that of silk and linen. Also, the fabric is moisture absorbent, making it an ideal fabric for sportswear and humid climates. However, some rayon fabrics require hand washing or dry cleaning and can shrink when machine washed.
There are three common types of rayon. Each of which has a unique manufacturing process:
Viscose rayon is the most common type of rayon fabric that manufacturers extract from raw materials like wood pulp.
Manufacturers mix this versatile fabric with natural and synthetic fibers and craft them into fabrics of different lengths and textures. Rayon is lightweight, breathable, and is commonly a substitute for silk, having the same smooth and luxurious look and feel.
The viscose rayon fabric has various uses, from textiles to yarns, dresses, blouses, and other types of clothing. However, viscose has low wet strength and can shrink when washed.
Modal rayon, also known as High wet modulus (HWM) rayon, is a makeup of cellulose derived from beech trees. This fabric is soft, breathable, and durable and can be blended with other fibers like cotton. We commonly find this type of rayon fabric used in clothes like pajamas, underwear, and household items like towels and bedsheets. Modal or HWM rayon is a more durable and expensive material than viscose.
Read More: Modal Fabric & Sustainability
Lyocell is a type of rayon manufacturers get from cellulose fiber. They produce it by dissolving natural materials like wood pulp. Also, they often blend it with cotton or linen. We consider Lyocell to be one of the most eco-friendly types of rayon, as manufacturers produce it using fewer harsh chemicals. We use them in making eco-friendly clothing like towels, jeans, t-shirts, and dresses.
Read More: Lyocell Fabric & Sustainability
The primary raw material used in making rayon is cellulose fiber. Manufacturers extract cellulose from wood pulp, cotton, pine, or other natural materials. The manufacturing process of different types of rayon is similar; however, there are a few alterations in processing chemicals, treatments, and fibers.
Manufacturers dissolve materials like wood pulp in caustic soda to convert it to alkali cellulose. However, when making the high wet modulus rayon, manufacturers use a weaker caustic soda.
Then they chemically treat the alkali cellulose with carbon disulfide to form cellulose xanthate. Next, they bathe the cellulose xanthate in caustic soda forming a viscose solution. They then add dyes to this solution and filter for impurities. After which, they store it for days.
Manufacturers convert the viscose solution into strands of fibers. They do this through the use of a spinneret which can come with large or small holes. They then put it in an acid bath which solidifies the filaments to form a regenerated cellulose filament.
After manufacturers solidify the filaments, they spin the filaments into yarns using various methods of spinning. These multiple methods include pot spinning, spool spinning, and continuous spinning. Manufacturers wash, bleach, dry, and stretch the filaments. For the high modulus wet rayon, manufacturers stretch the filaments at a much higher degree than viscose rayon.
After manufacturers spin the filaments, they pass them through a weaving process to produce the fabric. They then treat the filaments using chemicals. Several treatments, including water resistance, fire resistance, and pre-shrinking, are added to the final fabric.
Rayon was the first human-made fabric developed in the late 19th century as a substitute for silk5, and for many years, people knew rayon fabric as artificial silk.
In the 1860s, the French silk industry went through a crisis caused by a disease affecting silkworms. This led to an investigation by chemists who sought to produce artificial silk.
Hilaire Bernigaud, Comte de Chardonnet, who is often referred to as the father of the rayon industry, began developing rayon as a practical fiber in France.
In 1891, the production of “Chardonnet silk,” an early type of rayon, began at a factory in Besançon. However, the process was slow, expensive, and dangerous. What we know as Viscose rayon was produced in 1891 and 1905 by the British silk firm Samuel Courtauld & Company.
By 1925, it became an industry, and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) gave it the name ‘rayon.’3 In 1952, they split rayon into two categories; pure cellulose (rayon) and cellulose compound (acetate). However, the viscose rayon was weaker than other types of fibers used for clothing.
In 1955, manufacturers started producing a new type of rayon called the high wet modulus rayon (HWM), which was stronger than the viscose rayon. They used the HWM rayon in making towels, bedsheets, athletic wear, and other apparels.
Today, we know rayon for its durability and versatility. Manufacturers also blend it with other materials for making paper, tire cord, carpets, amongst other products. Rayon has become an important fiber globally.
And now, for the big question. Is rayon sustainable? We consider rayon to be more sustainable than materials like polyester and nylon. Essentially, the rayon fiber is biodegradable. A study reveals that viscose rayon decomposes faster than cotton4. However, its manufacturing process can be harmful to human health and the environment.
According to reports, over 150 million trees are cut down every year for viscose production2. Also, rayon undergoes several processes involving chemicals like sodium hydroxide, carbon disulfide, and sulfuric acid.
According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information1, there is evidence of rayon production, poisoning factory workers, water, and the local population.
However, manufacturers do not make all rayon with harmful chemicals. The lyocell fabric is made with less harmful chemicals and uses a loop process that prevents chemicals from being discharged into the water, making it a more eco-friendly option.
Rayon is a lightweight fabric that can shrink or lose its shape when wet. It is important to take care of your rayon fabric to help them last longer. Here are ways to care for your rayon fabric:
Toad and Co are committed to using sustainable fabrics like organic cotton, Tencel, Hemp, and Lenzing modal. It partners with the cleanest factories and makes clothing with minimal negative environmental impact.
Thought clothing uses sustainable fabrics such as hemp, bamboo, organic cotton, recycled polyester and rayon, Tencel, and modal.
Tentree is a fashion brand that continues to express its commitment to sustainability. It makes pieces using eco-friendly fabrics such as hemp fabric, organic cotton, Tencel, and recycled polyester. For every item purchased, Tentree claims to plant ten trees.
People Tree is one pioneer of ethical fashion. The company expresses its commitment to making clothing following ethical and environmental standards. They use fabrics like organic cotton and Tencel.
Bamboo fabric has natural fibers directly sourced from the bamboo plant. Manufacturers can process it into fabrics like hemp and linen, which is one of the most sustainable materials. Rayon has semi-synthetic fiber obtained from natural materials (bamboo stalks, wool, and cotton) and processed using chemicals. Some bamboo sheets might come with a label that reads “100% rayon from bamboo” meaning the rayon fabric is derived from a bamboo plant.
Polyester has synthetic fibers with a stiff texture. However, rayon is a semi-synthetic fiber with a silky texture. Rayon is more sustainable than polyester but is not as sustainable as other natural fabrics like organic cotton and hemp.
Manufacturers make organic cotton from natural fibers that are spun as soon as they separate the cotton from the seed. Both materials are breathable and absorbent. However, rayon is chemically processed. Rayon is cheaper to produce but is not environmentally friendly. Organic cotton is more sustainable, as it is an all-natural fabric.
Rayon is one of the most commonly used fabrics in the fashion industry. It is versatile and cost-effective. It is also more sustainable than other fabrics like polyester and nylon. With the advancement in technology today, there are now more sustainable ways to produce the fabric.
Robert A. Cohen, MD (2018, October) The Ongoing History of Harm Causedand Hidden by the Viscose Rayon and Cellophane Industry
Sustainable Material Guide Viscose Supply Compass (2020)
“Rayon .” Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Retrieved June 17, 2021, from Encyclopedia.com:
Warnock, M., Davis, K., Wolf, D., & Gbur, E. (2010). Biodegradation of Three Cellulosic Fabrics in Soil.
Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2016, April 4). Rayon. Encyclopedia Britannica.
Jen’s a passionate environmentalist and sustainability expert. With a science degree from Babcock University Jen loves applying her research skills to craft editorial that connects with our global changemaker and readership audiences centered around topics including zero waste, sustainability, climate change, and biodiversity.
Elsewhere Jen’s interests include the role that future technology and data have in helping us solve some of the planet’s biggest challenges. She’s also busy researching and exploring technology applications for product development for a changing world.