Today, we commonly use a range of plastic products in everyday life. Due to their lightweight and durable qualities, we find plastics in a host of different products. Unfortunately, plastic ends up in the marine environment after having been discarded. When you take the time to walk along just about any beach, you can find plastic debris. This is true whether it is an ocean, lake, or other body of water. It might be a plastic bag, an old toy, a container for a six-pack of soda, or countless other objects. The effect of plastic waste on marine life can now be felt across the globe.
Sadly, the amount of plastic in the water causes serious problems for marine life. A study from Plymouth University has found that nearly 700 species of marine animals have encountered debris from humankind7. Researchers also found evidence of more than 44,000 animals and organisms swallowing debris in the ocean or becoming entangled.
The number one debris culprit in 92% of the cases was plastic. The IUCN Red List of endangered species listed 17% of these marine animals as threatened or near-threatened.
Out of nearly 700 species that have encountered debris, they found close to 400 had involvement with ingestion or entanglement at least once. These types of incidents happened all around the world but were in higher concentrations off the East and West Coast of North America. This occurs along the coastal areas of Europe and Australia, as well.
Fish and other marine mammals that have gills have found their risks increased, particularly when it comes to small particles of plastic debris found in the water.
A study conducted by the University of Exeter found that it was more difficult for the fish to remove waste captured through their gills than plastic waste in the mouth. Plastics in the water can devastate fish, and because humans consume the fish, it affects us humans as well.
The sea turtle has also had a terrible time dealing with the vast amount of plastic in our oceans. Each year, plastic debris, including fishing nets, entangle turtles. Many turtles will also ingest plastic because they mistake it for actually being food. Plastic can become lodged in their digestive system, causing them to die.
Often too, because of the plastic lodged in their guts, they can mistakenly not feel hungry. As a result, they can not seek food and die of starvation.
Six out of seven of the world’s sea turtle species ingest plastic debris8. Only the flatback sea turtle does not. Researchers found out that nearly 50% of sea turtles had swallowed plastic, which ultimately contributed to their deaths.
Whales and dolphins, as well as other marine mammals often have the same problem. They are also swallowing plastic because they cannot tell the difference between food and plastic. In some instances, they may be eating other marine creatures that have been entangled in plastic. At least 26 species of cetaceans have ingested plastic debris6.
In fact, there was a case from 1993 where a male pygmy sperm whale was stranded in Texas. The whale died in a holding tank 11 days after rescue. Researchers discovered the first two stomach compartments were full of plastic debris. Items found in the whale include a plastic chip bag, a garbage bag, two pieces of plastic sheeting, and a bread wrapper2.
These types of cases are not rare; however, it seems as though they are getting progressively worse. Even shore crabs have had serious problems with ingesting plastic. It ends up retained in the body tissues of the crabs for up to 14 days after ingestion and for up to 21 days after entering into the gills4.
Sea lions and seals are facing similar problems in regard to plastic. They have issues with plastic debris, nets, and fishing lines, as well as bags and packing bands made from plastic. Researchers conducted an eight-year study in Southeast Alaska and British Columbia5. They found that there were 388 sea lions that were either entangled in marine debris or had eaten fishing gear. The researchers created a video that shows how the sea lions become entangled. It also provides information on how people can help to deal with this problem.
Sea birds are not exempt from the issue of plastic in the marine environment either. A study found that between 1962 and 2012, eighty of 135 species had ingested plastic, and on average 29% of the birds had plastic in their gut3. By standardizing the data, they believe that the rate of ingestion would be as high as 90% in today’s world. Again, the threat today is more severe and it continues to get worse.
It is important to realize that it is not only the larger pieces of plastic that are easily visible and that are causing problems in marine life. Even if all of the large pieces of plastic were fished out of the water, we would still have to contend with the dangers of microplastics that were not removed because of their small size. These are particles that are made from non-degradable plastic that is less than 5mm long and that will not dissolve in water. They can be as small as one micrometer.
A range of different factors affects the bioavailability of microplastics in the water. Microplastics can come from a host of different sources and make their way into our water. Microbeads, for example, are small beads that are found in exfoliates, which were once made from natural ingredients.
However, today, they use small plastic beads to fill them. You find them in hand soap, conditioner and shampoo, sunscreen, cleansers, deodorants, toothpaste, and a host of other items that people will use around the house without thinking twice. Most people do not realize the amount of damage that these microplastics are doing.
Because so much sea life has already ingested these microplastics, it means that seafood for human consumption now also contains these plastics. In fact, research in the United States and Indonesia found that about 25% of the fish in markets had small plastics in them, and this was true with about 33% of shellfish1. This means that a large number of people are already unwittingly ingesting plastic.
With the massive amount of plastic in the marine environment, it is important that the world begins to take steps now to make some serious changes. The oceans, lakes, and rivers are essential to our survival as a species, as well as the survival of the species that make those locations their home.
The world needs to reduce its dependency on plastic. We are already starting to see some changes in a positive direction happening in this area, as many locations have banned plastic straws and bags.
Meanwhile, as awareness of the plastic waste problem grows, many of us are now saying no to plastic bottles, seeking our eco-friendly alternatives to plastic straws, and even shopping for plastic-free gifts. These are all steps in the right direction.
And innovative solutions are coming to bear too. Today some plastic is made from hemp which can be used in everything from cars to packaging. Bamboo is proving a more sustainable alternative to plastic and as we look to reduce, reuse and recycle, different types of plastic waste are now finding their way into clothes and even roads.
As such we have a range of solutions and alternatives. We can all do our bit to reduce plastic waste in the office, at home and make choices to cut down on single-use plastics.
In addition, producers of products need to rethink the materials they are using, as well as their packaging. It may also be a good option to increase taxes and fees on the use of various types of polluting plastics. Improved waste management and recycling as essential, as well. Additional research and studies can also help. People can learn other areas of concern, as well as new ways of dealing with current problems.
Ultimately, there needs to be more education when it comes to plastic in the marine environment. The general public needs to understand more about the types of problems occurring and just how dangerous they can be. Educating current and future generations and implementing meaningful changes is essential. It may be possible to eventually eliminate or at least greatly reduce the amount of plastic in the marine environment.
|Rochman CM, Tahir A, Williams SL, Baxa DV, Lam R, Miller JT, Teh FC, Werorilagngi S, and Teh SJ, “Anthropogenic Debris in Seafood: Plastic Debris and Fibers from Textiles in Fish and Bivalves Sold for Human Consumption”, 2015|
|R.J. Tarpley, S. Marwitz, “Plastic Debris Ingestion by Cetaceans along the Texas Coast: Two Case Reports”, 1993|
|Chris Wilcox, Erik Van Sebille, and Britta Denise Hardesty, “Threat of Plastic Pollution to Seabirds is Global, Pervasive, and Increasing”, 2015|
|Environ. Sci. Technol., “Uptake and Retention of Microplastics by the Shore Crab Carcinus Maenas”, 2014|
|Riley Woodford, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, “Entanglement of Steller Sea Lions Identifying Causes and Finding Solutions”, 2012|
|José G.B Derraik, The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 44, Issue 9, 2002, Pages 842-852, ISSN 0025-326X, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00220-5|
|S.C. Gall, R.C. Thompson, The impact of debris on marine life, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 92, Issues 1–2, 2015, Pages 170-179, ISSN 0025-326X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.12.041|
|Qamar Schuyler, Britta Denies Hardesty, Chris Wilcox, and Kathy Townsend, Society for Conservation Biology, “Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles”, 2013|